Saturday, October 26, 2013

Making faster under PyPy

If you've ever tried to run your programs with under PyPy,
you've probably experienced some incredible slowness. Take this simple

def f():
    return 1

def main():
    i = 10000000
    while i:
        i -= f()


Running time run five times, and looking at the best
run, here's how PyPy 2.1 stacks up against CPython 2.7.5:

Python Time Normalized to CPython
CPython 2.7.5 3.879s 1.0x
PyPy 2.1 53.330s 13.7x slower

Totally ridiculous. I got turned onto this problem because on one of my
projects CPython takes about 1.5 minutes to run our test suite on the build
bot, but PyPy takes 8-10 minutes.

So I sat down to address it. And the results:

Python Time Normalized to CPython
CPython 2.7.5 3.879s 1.0x
PyPy 2.1 53.330s 13.7x slower
PyPy head 1.433s 2.7x faster

Not bad.

Technical details

So how'd we do it? Previously, using sys.settrace() (which
uses under the hood) disabled the JIT. Except it didn't just disable the JIT,
it did it in a particularly insidious way — the JIT had no idea it was being

Instead, every time PyPy discovered that one of your functions was a hotspot,
it would start tracing to observe what the program was doing, and right when it
was about to finish, coverage would run and cause the JIT to abort. Tracing
is a slow process, it makes up for it by generating fast machine code at the
end, but tracing is still incredibly slow. But we never actually got to the
"generate fast machine code" stage. Instead we'd pay all the cost of tracing,
but then we'd abort, and reap none of the benefits.

To fix this, we adjusted some of the heuristics in the JIT, to better show it
how sys.settrace(<tracefunc>) works. Previously the JIT saw it as an opaque
function which gets the frame object, and couldn't tell whether or not it
messed with the frame object. Now we let the JIT look inside the
<tracefunc> function, so it's able to see that isn't
messing with the frame in any weird ways, it's just reading the line number and
file path out of it.

I asked several friends in the VM implementation and research field if they
were aware of any other research into making VMs stay fast when debugging tools
like are running. No one I spoke to was aware of any (but I
didn't do a particularly exhaustive review of the literature, I just tweeted at
a few people), so I'm pleased to say that PyPy is quite possibly the first VM
to work on optimizing code in debugging mode! This is possible because of our
years spent investing in meta-tracing research.

Happy testing,


John Doe said...

No, you're not the first to make this pretentious mistake.

What's the report for code that was actually eliminated by optimizations? Was it covered? Was it not?

Anonymous said...

You misunderstand John Doe. The coverage report is for the user's Python code, which isn't optimized, eliminated, or otherwise modified. The PyPy speedups come from a clever reimplementation of the interpreter that runs the user's Python code, and this article was explaining how they found and fixed a big slowdown that happens to be triggered by a common test-related library.

Armin Rigo said...

@John Doe: sadly, we fail to understand exactly what part of the blog post you're answering to in your sentence "No, you're not the first to make this pretentious mistake". Can you please give more context and elaborate a bit?

John M. Camara said...

@Armin: I believe John Doe is talking about the last paragraph as I believe the JVM also does not disable optimizations when using debug tools.

If this is the case than his comment is silly as Alex clearly stated he didn't do an exhaustive search.

ArneBab said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
ArneBab said...

This sounds similar to the -Og setting of GCC, which enables all optimizations which do not interfere with debugging.